Is Freckle research-based?

For more information on the research conducted around Freckle's efficacy, please reference


When building Freckle, there were several papers from which we drew insights. They support the adaptive learning portions of Freckle, the video support, peer to peer teaching, competitive aspects, and the virtual manipulatives. Below is a list of papers we drew heavily from:


Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Pelletier, R. (1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4, 167-207.

Craig, S., Chi, M., & VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 779-789.

Diziol, D., Rummel, N., Spada, H., & McLaren, B. (2007). Promoting learning in mathematics: Script support for collaborative problem.

Hein, T. L. (1997). Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs. Kansas State University, Source DAI-A 58/06, 2142.

Koedinger, K., & Corbett, A. (2006). Cognitive tutors: Technology bringing learning science to the classroom. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, Cambridge University Press, 61-78.

Mayer, R.E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: Using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning and Instruction, 13, 125–139.

Mayer, R. E. (2008). Applying the science of learning to multimedia instruction. In J. Mestre & B. Ross (Eds.), Psychology of learning and motivation: Cognition in instruction. New York: Oxford University Press.

National Center for Education Research. (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning. NCER.

VanLehn, K. (2006). The behavior of tutoring systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 16, 227-265.

Walker, E., Rummel, N., McLaren, B., & Koedinger, K. (2007). The student becomes the master: Integrating peer tutoring with cognitive tutoring. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 3.

Wu, H-H. (2011). Phoenix rising: Bringing the common core state mathematics standards to life. American Educator, 3-13.

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